Frequently Asked Questions

Why Monoclonal Antibodies?

It is also possible to make antisera / polyclonal antibodies against dsRNA (see e.g. Stollar et al., 1978)1. Although such antibodies may produce good empirical results they are an undefined mixture containing antibodies of different affinities. The composition of the mixture will be different for each immunized animal and each bleeding. The supply of such antibodies is finite, so that – at some stage – new animals will have to be immunised to provide a continuing supply of anti-dsRNA antibodies and the composition of the polyclonal mix will differ from that of previous batches. A particular monoclonal antibody is a single pure substance and always has the same affinity for the molecules it recognizes – in the case of our antibodies dsRNA.  Hence the results obtained with our antibodies are standardized - providing you with consistent, reproducible results whenever you use them.

1 Stollar, B.D.,  Erik De Clercq, E.,  Jean-Louis Drocourt, J.-l. and Thang, M.N. (1978) Immunochemical Measurement of Conformational Heterogeneity  of Poly( Inosinic Acid) Eur. J. Biochem. 82, 339-346.

What is the origin and history of the antibodies?

The initial motivation for producing the antibodies was to provide reagents for plant virus research. 80% of plant viruses have RNA as their genetic material (Mathews Plant Virology 5th Edition)1 and thus, a reagent that could detect dsRNA in plant extracts was predicted to have universal utility for detecting viral infections of plants. The J2, K1 and K2 antibodies were created in 1990 and their specificity and lack of reaction with DNA, single stranded RNA and a range of synthetic nucleic acids was extensively characterized (Schönborn et al., 1991)2. Initial research validated the usefulness of these antibodies in plant viral infection (Lukács 1994)3, and subsequent research has shown that the antibodies can also effectively be applied for the characterisation and study of animal viruses (Weber et al., 2006)4. To date the antibodies have been used in the research reported in over 200 scientific publication. Detailed information can be found on our publication database.

1Matthews' Plant Virology (Fifth  Edition) (2013) R. Hull Academic Press.

2Schönborn, J., Oberstrass, J., Breyel, E., Tittgen, J., Schumacher, J. and Lukacs, N. (1991) Monoclonal antibodies to double-stranded RNA as probes of RNA structure in crude nucleic acid extracts. Nucleic Acids Res.19, 2993-3000.

3Lukacs, N. (1994) Detection of virus infection in plants and differentiation between coexisting viruses by monoclonal antibodies to double-stranded RNA.   J. Virol. Methods 47, 255-272

4Weber, F.,  Wagner, V.,  Rasmussen, S. B., Hartmann, R. and  . Paludan, S. R. (2006). Double-Stranded RNA Is Produced by Positive-Strand RNA Viruses and DNA Viruses but Not in Detectable Amounts by Negative-Strand RNA Viruses.   J. Virol. 80: 5059-5064

What’s the difference between J2, K1 and K2?

J2, K1 and K2 all bind dsRNA longer than 40bp, in a sequence-independent manner. J2 and K1 have the IgG isotype (igG2a subclass) and are shipped in lyophilised form, whereas K2 has the IgM isotype and is shipped as hybridoma supernatant. J2 and K1 have highly overlapping properties and can be used for similar applications, while K2 is primarily used for sandwich ELISA.

Do your antibodies cross-react with any other cellular polynucleotides?

No, our antibodies do not recognise DNA or other forms of RNA (ssRNA, tRNA, rRNA), as shown in the original paper by Schönborn et al. 1991.


I haven’t used an anti dsRNA antibody before. Should I start with J2, K1 or K2?

Our antibodies have overlapping properties. J2 has established itself as the gold standard for dsRNA recognition, and generally gives good results in most systems. However, for some applications K1 or K2 might work better. You can check our database of publications to search for papers where our antibodies were used in an experimental setup of your interest.

For what methods can anti-dsRNA antibodies be used?

Our antibodies are routinely used for immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, immunocapture (ELISA, dotblot,immunoprecipitation), and Flow cytometry (FACS). For a detailed list of applications, please browse our publications database.

Can you provide me with protocols for my method of interest?

Not directly, but we have compiled an extensive database of publications in which use our antibodies for diverse applications is described. Still need help? - Contact us!

I work with a virus that is not listed in your publications, although it produces dsRNA. Will your antibodies recognize my virus?

Almost certainly. Our antibodies recognize dsRNA longer than 40bp, regardless of the sequence. If you are still in doubt, feel free to contact us!

In what form will you ship the antibodies?

Our J2 and K1 antibodies are lyophilized and shipped at room temperature. They will need to be reconstituted with sterile distilled water before use. The mAbs will then be in PBS without any stabilisers or preservatives. Our K2 antibody is shipped as hybridoma culture supernatant and is sent on water ice.

What is the stability of the antibodies?

After reconstitution antibodies should be aliquoted and stored at -20 °C or -70 °C. After adding 10 mM sodium azide the undiluted antibody can also be stored at +4 °C for a short period of time. For long term storage the mAb should be kept frozen. Repeated freezing/thawing cycles should be avoided.

Can you provide an MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) for your products?

Yes, please ask for it when you order.

I have published a paper using your antibodies, but cannot find it in your database. Why?

We have spent extensive time and effort to search and annotate publications that use our antibodies. If your publication is recent we may not have it yet - there is a lag time of about two months till we include them in the database. However, if it is older, it is also possible that we may have missed your publication. In that case, we apologise and will be more than happy to add it to our references. Please contact us.

How should I cite your antibodies in my paper?

Please cite the antibody name (J2, K1 or K2) and “English and Scientific Consulting, Hungary”. You may also include our weblink (

I don’t have a VAT number. Can I still order?

Yes, you can still order!

If you are ordering from within the European Union, you will not be able to use our online ordering system without a valid VAT number. But you can still place an order by fax, phone or email. Please also note that we must charge the Hungarian VAT rate of 27% on your order. This is because the price of our Products does not include VAT. If you provide a valid EU VAT number, we do not need to charge any VAT on your order because your business or institution will account for any VAT due in its normal VAT return at the rate in force in your country.If you are ordering from outside the European Union, no VAT is charged on the transaction. You therefore don’t need to provide a VAT number to be able to use our online ordering system.

Do you accept Purchase Orders (POs)?

Yes, we accept POs from universities, research institutes and large corporations. Your purchasing department may however require additional data from us to register us in their vendor database before a PO can be generated – if so, please contact us. If the order is from the USA your purchasing department may also require us to provide them with a W8BEN form and an EIN number – we can provide these.

What is the Customs Tariff Number for your antibodies?

It belongs in the group 3002.10.xx Antisera and other blood fractions and modified immunological products, whether or not obtained by means of biotechnological processes.

However the subgroup (xx) used varies from country to country. In the EU it is 3002.10.91

There was an EU court decision in 1993 that made a definitive ruling about the correct tariff number for monoclonal antibodies in the EU on the basis of the fact that they are substances that belong to the class of serum globulins.


How can I order?

The simplest way is to use our online ordering system and follow the instructions given there. If you are based in Europe you will need your VAT ID number to complete your order. We also accept Purchase Orders (POs) from universities, research institutes and large corporations. POs can be sent to us by e-mail (orders or fax (+36 1 577 2100). If neither of these options applies to you please contact us.

What is the correct format for Recipient Tax ID?

Tax IDs should be entered in the following format: Country Abbreviation (2 letter code), then digits (numbers and / or letters - depending on the country) without any spaces (eg for the UK GB123456789 - for Spain ESQ1234567D) - if you are unsure of the correct format of the VAT ID number for your country see the Wikipedia entry on VAT identification numbers (some of the model VAT numbers listed  there contain spaces.  Please make sure that when you input your VAT number that it contains no spaces).

Where do you ship to?

Our company supplies antibodies to researchers in 37 different countries worldwide. To most countries we ship directly from our headquarters in Hungary, but in China and Japan our antibodies are sold by our local exclusive distributors (HTPharma in China - and Biolinks K.K. in Japan -

I can't find my country on your map. Does this mean you will not ship here?

No, it does not mean that we will not deliver our anti-dsRNA mAbs to your country. Most likely you are our first customer from that country. Please contact us to ensure a smooth delivery procedure.

What are the costs of package and posting?

Within Europe for our J2 and K1 antibodies we offer delivery by FedEx (next day delivery) or traditional mail (3-5 days for delivery). For traditional mail we calculate a flat rate of 20 € for package and posting. For FedEx deliveries we ship J2 & K1 in a small FedEx Box. For all orders of K2 antibody we use FedEx for shipment on ice. The shipment costs are directly added to the weight of the package.

The FedEx shipment costs vary. For J2 and K1 they range from 60 € / 80 USD for most countries in Europe, 75 € / 95 USD to the USA and  116 € / 155 USD for Singapore. For K2 they range from 120 € / 162 USD in Europe to 150 € / 200 USD for the USA.

I have placed an order. When will I receive the product?

We try to ensure delivery within 5 working days. In the case of foreseeable delays we contact our customers as soon as possible to inform them to the expected date of shipment.

In what form will you ship the antibodies?

Our J2 and K1 antibodies are lyophilized and shipped at room temperature. They will need to be reconstituted before use. Our K2 antibody is shipped as culture supernatant in an insulated container on water ice contained in leak-proof freezer blocks.

Can you provide an MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) for your products?

Yes, please ask for it when you order.

How do I use MOTO?

To use MOTO, please complete our online ordering form and tick the MOTO payment option. The system will prompt you on what to do next. 

You can also let us know that you wish to pay by MOTO if ordering by email, phone or fax.

In this case, we will ask you to provide your card details by phone or fax. Please do NOT send us your credit  or debit card details via email.

To provide your card details over the phone, please phone us on +36 1 951 6420, or let us know at when would be a convenient time for us to call you.

Our office is open 8:30 am to 5:30 pm Central European Time (CET), Monday - Friday, or by appointment. 

Alternatively, you can send a fax with your order number and card details to + 36 1 577 2100

What is MOTO?

MOTO stands for “Mail Order Telephone Order”. Essentially, this service allows us to accept credit and debit card payments from customers by phone or fax, and to process those payments through the secure WorldPay payments service. 

Any card that we can accept with WorldPay through our website shop can be accepted using the MOTO payments service. Processing charges are also the same.

How can I pay?

1. You can pay for our Products using a debit card or credit card, either using our online ordering system or by phone or fax (MOTO). All card payments are processed via the WorldPay secure online payment portal.

(a) We accept the following cards: Visa Credit, Visa Debit, MasterCard Credit, MasterCard Debit, and AMEX.

(b) Payment by debit or credit card is in advance. We will not charge your debit card or credit card until we dispatch your order.

(c) We do not store any credit or debit card details. Any card details you provide will only be used for payment of the order in hand.

2. We also accept wire transfers, cheques and Purchase Orders (PO).

(a) If you wish to pay by PO, your purchasing department may require additional data from us to register us in their vendor database before a PO can be generated – if so, please contact us. If the order is from the USA your purchasing department may also require us to provide them with a W-8BEN-E form and/or an EIN number – we can provide these.

(b) Please note that any bank charges incurred in making the payment must be paid by you. Payment by cheque is therefore not recommended as handling fees are high.

(c) Full payment instructions are set out on the invoice.

(d) Invoices should be paid no later than 30 days after the invoice date.

Do I have to pay before I can order?

No, not if you are ordering from a recognised educational institution, large research institute or large commercial corporation. However, if you want to use the convenience of  our online ordering system and  pay by credit card, payment is made at the time of order. If you are ordering with a Purchase Order (PO) our terms are 30 days.

My institution has a FedEx account. Can shipments be charged to this account?

Yes, it is absolutely no problem to charge the cost of the shipment directly to the customers FedEx account. You simply need to provide us with your FedEx account number and give us permission to use it.

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